【小論文】論DVD用於聽力教學之潛力及注意事項(Using Digital Video in Listening Instruction)

這一篇Assignment主要是討論DVD用於聽力教學的優缺以及要注意的地方。

DVD用於教學具有高動機、容易使用,對EFL環境的學生而言也較易取得,研究證實DVD對學生的學習確實有幫助,但需注意以下幾點:

♦字幕的使用:建議配合學生程度,若程度差者,建議播三次,第一次配合中文字幕,第二次英文字幕,到第三次完全不用字幕循序漸進。

♦善用暫停及重播鍵:DVD的優點即在於可以重播,聽不清楚的單字片語等,不要忘了重覆播放促進學習。

♦配套活動的實施:從內容的了解、文化的討論、角色扮演等,有相當多種可能,避免看完影片就結束,未充份運用此一媒體。

♦儘可能配合教材使用:達到加深印象的功用。

——————————–

Using digital video in Listening Instruction

Introduction

Recent years have seen increased attention being given to use media technologies, such as video, audio, and computer software, in foreign language classrooms. Several studies have proved their value as language learning materials.(Bueno, 2009; de Freitas & Griffiths, 2008; Kuppens, 2010; Markham, Peter, & McCarthy, 2001; Taylor, 2005) In EFL teaching environment, because of little or no direct access to native speakers of the target language, teaching listening and speaking is always more difficult than teaching reading and writing. However, the appearance of these media technologies could probably provide the filling of these gaps. AS one of these useful teaching aids, DVD (digital versatile disc) has its underestimated potential since it has several advantages those other materials could not provide. Hence, the purpose of this article is to investigate and discuss with the relevant researches and evaluates the suitability of using DVD as teaching approach in Taiwan.

In Tschirner’s study(2001), he analyzed several areas of SLA research and then indicated some benefits digital video could supply. Firstly, DVD could construct a situated learning. With the authentic context in the program, it helps the students to be in the exposure of real communication and it could be an effective motivation for them. Secondly, since most of the students already have the knowledge about meanings (concepts), DVD could be a useful bridge which connects the form of the word with the meaning. Because of the characteristic of DVD that it could be played slowly and repeatedly, it could afford students not only the detail of words, phrases, and sentences (input) but also the context where and when to use them correctly (output). To be specific, with the function button “replay”, DVD could help teachers to deconstruct and interpret a video by different ways, such as the viewpoint of grammar, socio-culture, or pragmatism. Moreover, emotional motivation would usually lead to a better outcome. With the diverse aspects of DVD we have in the contemporary society, DVD could help students to exchange their interests and promote identification with groups of people from the target culture. Thus, it could contribute to cultivate their positive attitude and interests about learning English.

Another relevant interesting research could be seen in Kuppens’ study. (2010) In that study, after comparing the self-reported use of three English language media(i.e., telsvision program, movie and game) by 374 students in the last year of primary school in Belgium, he asserted that pupils who frequently watch subtitled English television programs and movies perform considerably better on oral translation tests and this indicated that visual materials with subtitles could not only have short-term positive effects but also long-term beneficial effects. Since digital video usually could also be played with subtitles, to a certain degree, this might imply that watching English DVD could also improve students’translation and language ability. Even though incidental and intentional language acquisition are quiet different and this research only could be connected with incidental language learning, in a broad sense, the research could still shed some light that watching DVD could advance learners’ language acquisition and teachers should put attention to provide pupils with methods, strategies and viewing behaviors that optimize their incidental language acquisition from media exposure.

Concerning about using multilingual captions in watching digital video, some researchers stated that there is a recommended sequence for the pupils in the university-level to be beneficial from watching materials with captions.(Koskinen, Knable, Markham, Jensema, & Kane, 1996)Since university-level second language students normally have better reading ability than listening ability, it would be more suitable for them to watch the material with the native language captions first. After that, they would be most likely benefit from view the same material with the target language captions. Finally, the students can be capable to see the same resource without captions. This theory could be explained. Because usually when people watch video material such as DVD, they will try to find out the meaning first, and the learning of the form will happen later. For those students whose English ability is not so good, to start from watching the video material with native caption would be a more efficient choice for their understanding of the meaning. And later when they have known the meaning in the material, using the target language caption could help them to check the form and help them obtain the connection between meaning and form. The appearance of DVD could let this hypothetical developmental progression be tested since DVD usually provide the options for people to choose if they want to see the captions and the language of captions.

One interesting research could potentially prove this hypothesis (Markham, et al., 2001). In this study, 169 intermediate fourth-semester Spanish as Foreign Language students were tested by watching a 7-minute DVD episode to evaluate the effects of using Spanish captions, English captions, or no captions with a Spanish-language soundtrack DVD. The students were divided into each of the three treatment conditions: Spanish captions, English captions, or no captions. Accompanying with writing and multiple choice tests later, the result showed that, for intermediate level students, the English captions group had the best performance while the Spanish captions group executed better than the no captions group in the test. This revealed that for the middle level pupils, because their listening comprehension is not as good as the native speakers, it will be more appropriate for them to see the captions while using their reading comprehension to help their acquisition of meaning. And since they have achieved intermediate level, they have probably already gotten enough vocabularies and do not need native language captions to help their understanding of the material.(2009) Bueno also had similar argument that, based on his experiences, pupils who are at the intermediate-low to mid-levels of proficiency prefer native language captions while students who are at the intermediate-high to advanced-low levels seems to prefer target language captions.

Based on these researches, it is obvious that digital video could be a beneficial means for teaching foreign language in the classroom. However, each country has its special educational background, and this should be taken into consideration. Thus, this article will discuss how to use DVD to achieve pedagogical goals in my country-Taiwan below.

Evaluation

Basically, the use of digital video in teaching English in Taiwan is not very popular, even though sometimes English teachers would play some videos or movies in the classroom, it does not come with the following activities. Most teachers and students would think that these digital videos just serves as the goals of entertainment and the beneficial effects of digital video for educational goals still need to be exploited. In order to use DVD as a powerful means to improve students’ foreign language acquisition in Taiwan, there are several issues should be analyzed and discussed.

First and foremost, if we want to use DVD in the classroom, we must have the equipment such as computers and projectors. In Taiwan, most public schools do have these equipments except some schools in remote areas. Besides, some private language centers do not have these facilities, either. Thus, that will be the managers and authorities’ responsibility to equip schools and language centers with these educational facilities.

Secondly, while teachers use DVD to teach, the choice of the caption should be decided carefully. Like what has been discussed before, teachers need to evaluate the level of students’ aural comprehension ability to decide which caption should be used. If the pupils are under intermediate-low level, a sequence from the native language caption to the target language caption and finally no caption could be probably useful. But if the students are good at aural comprehension such as at the advanced level, maybe starting from a target language caption would be a better choice.

Another important topic is the following activities, as Bueno indicated in his study(2009), there are several tasks could be adopted, such as viewing log, comprehension questions, listening again to check the pronunciation, group discussion or recording their speaking. To listen again or indicate some special cultural context, this need to be down by teachers to use the function buttons correctly. He also proposed to do a “simulated oral proficiency interview.” That is, to provide students description of their oral proficiency level and some suggestions to achieve next level. By using these activities, it could not only advance their understanding of the meaning but also help them express more effectively. Thus, the following activities should be well designed to cooperate with the course teaching, and teachers should prepare each course in advance to ensure use digital video not only afford the opportunity of developing students’ input ability but also give the chance for students to produce some output.

In the study, Bueno also claimed that film is an effective tool to promote transcultural competency. By watching films, it provides students to have opportunities to reflect their own culture and comare the target language culture with it. At pragmatic level, teachers should be agle to indicate the difference between the two cultures and help students to overcome ethnocentric behaviors and build the understanding of the target language culture. In Taiwan, the culture is quiet different to the western culture, so the compare between two cultures could be an educational and interesting issue and should be pointed out in the classroom.

Moreover, since the teaching material always plays an important role in foreign language acquisition, when the publishers design the outline of the textbook, the use of DVD should be taken into consideration. In foreign language teaching classroom, the DVD come with the authentic context should be used first to provide the students both visual and audio references. Besides, the guideline about how to use these materials effectively and what are the recommended activities should be accompanied with the textbooks to ensure the function of the material could be used to the maxim.

Conclusion

To conclude, using DVD in teaching English could provide several advantages such as the authentic visual and audio input, optional language captions and high intrinsic motivation. Even though it also requires appropriate facilities and teachers’ cooperation, it nonetheless appears that to use DVD properly could be in the best interests of the students.

On the other hand, although the present study has yielded findings that have both theoretical and pedagogical implications, an important area like how to use DVD efficiently in each different country still requires more relevant research and experiments.

Above all, like Bueno claimed in his research that “It is enough to cause an instructor who is a nonnative speaker of the target language to shake her head and say, I wish I had these tools when I was in college!”(2009, p. 319). The appearance of DVD could be possibly a very effective educational means and it could also light pupils’ intrinsic motivation. It could not only provide the authentic top-down schema of education, it could also play a crucial role in building up bottom-up knowledge such as vocabularies. Since the use of digital video is still not popular in Taiwan, I am convinced that we should further promote the development of relevant researches and meanwhile the government should introduce measures to utilize it more effectively.

Word count

2044 words

References

Bueno, K. A. (2009). Got Film? Is It a Readily Accessible Window to the Target Language and Culture for Your Students? Foreign Language Annals, 42(2), 318-339.

de Freitas, S., & Griffiths, M. (2008). The convergence of gaming practices with other media forms: what potential for learning? A review of the literature. Learning, Media and Technology, 33(1), 11 – 20.

Koskinen, P., Knable, J., Markham, P., Jensema, C., & Kane, K. (1996). Captioned television and the vocabulary acquisition of adult second language correctional facility residents. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 24, 359-373.

Kuppens, A. H. (2010). Incidental foreign language acquisition from media exposure. Learning, Media and Technology, 35(1), 65 – 85.

Markham, P. L., Peter, L. A., & McCarthy, T. J. (2001). The Effects of Native Language vs. Target Language Captions on Foreign Language Students’ DVD Video Comprehension. Foreign Language Annals, 34(5), 439-445.

Taylor, G. (2005). Perceived Processing Strategies of Students Watching Captioned Video. Foreign Language Annals, 38(3), 422-427.

Tschirner, E. (2001). Language Acquisition in the Classroom: The Role of Digital Video. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 14(3), 305 – 319.



无觅相关文章插件,快速提升流量